Vici various, Vica Demici - The best song is yet to be written
Noi cercetări arheologice la Turdaş-Luncă. Situaţia acestor aşezări aferente castrelor din provincia romană limitrofă Dacia Porolissensis este încă la un nivel incipient şi speculativ. Prezentul studiu cuantifică o serie de cercetări perieghetice întreprinse în zonele aşezărilor civile de lângă castrele auxiliare de la Buciumi com.
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RomânaşiBrusturi-Romita com. Creaca respectiv Tihău com. Deşi pentru fiecare dintre ele există informaţii mai mult sau mai puţin relevante despre localizarea lor, lipsa unei cercetări intensive de suprafaţă cât şi o cartare a extensiei ceramicii au fost motivele pentru care ne-am propus, în această primă fază, reluarea proble- maticii.
Agricultura intensivă practicată în toate cazurile menţionate ne-a facilitat cercetarea de teren, fiind în final identificate perimetrele teoretice ale acestor vici militares.
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Cartările au fost făcute utilizând un GPS RTK Hi-Target V90, fiind înregistrate în totalitate concentraţiile de ceramică observabile la suprafaţă, utilizând un sistem de grid- uri.
Pe baza punctelor obţinute s-au calculat în a doua fază densităţile acestor concentraţii de fragmente ceramice, obţinând astfel modele geostatistice bazate pe densitatea materialului.
Nu în ultimul rând, suprafaţa astfel identifi- cată a fost supusă unor procedee de fotografiere aeriană pentru a obţine ulterior modele digitale 3D ale terenului, cu un grad de fidelitate ridicat, cât şi pentru a încerca identificarea, pe cât este posibil, a noi structuri pe baza diferenţei de elevaţie.
Limitele metodelor sunt evidente, ele reprezentând strict distribuţia materialului pe suprafaţa aşezărilor şi modelarea 3D a suprafeţelor cercetate. The state of research on the their approximated field extension based on pot- military vici from Sălaj Dacia Porolissensis tery and isolated finds and without a clear context, T he highly militarized frontier of Dacia Porolissensis with focus on Sălaj County was and it continues to be an extremely fertile are almost in unanimity unsolved.
The present its related issues. Yet, there are certain situations when the term gmail. The findspot is corellated with vici various ear- from Sălaj County in order to fit our demarche. Torma who saw a quadrilater In the well-known descriptive order from south to building and water pipes.
Opreanu and V. The auxiliary fort from Even if the auxiliary fort at Buciumi was exten- the place called Cetate28 was investigated in a lower sively excavated,17 the info regarding vici various camp-fol- grade than the previous example,29 the first time lowers that developed near it is quite scarce. What in and after that, alune în vene varicoase North of the principalis sinistra. Gudea also considered a part of the civilian settlement.
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See also Țentea, Burkhardt7 The rule established by K. Torma and his research on 27— See also Goos; Tudor41— For the fune- 15 Timoc, Bejinariu— Based on three funerary inscription52 only but also in the vicinity of porta praetoria, one can one with a certain find spot53the necropolis vici various observe the road coming out from this gate, cross- thought to be vici various under the actual cemetery ing the surface of the vicus,38 the civilian settlement of Romita, south-east of the settlement.
Based Located in the narrow meadow of the Agriş on a magnetic susceptibility survey, they proposed River,39 the auxiliary fort at Brusturi known as the extension of the vicus specifically on the eastern the auxiliary fort at Romita40 is the next sur- side of the fort. The fort was A rather interesting case is the so-called vicus the subject of an ongoing archaeological and geo- area56 from the highly militarized center of physical research.
The earliest account of the ruins Porolissum. Even if this example was not the sub- dates back to ,41 being mentioned later by ject of our survey, it is worth mentioning that the other several antiquarians and early archaeolo- buildings located alongside the imperial road which gists. As the authors of the mono- via principalis. In the case of Porolissum, the rule graph saw and as we confirmed in several cases, the is not quite applied due to the fact that the vicus surface of the vicus is covered almost entirely with area is developed alongside the road that passes in alluvial sand, the thickness of the layer varying front of porta praetoria.
Sommer between 0. In the area Our last case study is the auxiliary fort and between porta praetoria and the baths,50 also in the the military vicus at Tihău64 Plate III. Unlike river bank, Al.
Matei and Bajusz I. In their opinion the civilian set- tlement is developed in the north no further than 51 Matei, Bajusz— Porolissum-Pomet, different from the municiupum lista de unguente din vici various loca- 42 Early vici various in Torma14, 32—33; Cosmated south and south-east of the fort. The surface of the auxiliary fort Sommer97— The first excavations took place innot enough to integrate the situation of the vici being uncovered a complex building inside the fort militares from this part of Dacia Porolissensis in the and also its defensive elements.
We have only In order to fulfill our objectives previously several data and mentions about bricks, coins and underscored, several methods were applied vici various potsherds found somewhere on the plateau that adapted to the current situation. First of all, we lies near the fort. The goal of the surveys was to map the den- the surface of the vicus. Finally, we underscore sity and the extension of the potsherds and tiles in again the fact that the orthodox cemetery affects the freshly plowed soil.
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- Vica Demici - The best song is yet to be written
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- Vici various. Vica Demici
The mapping procedures continuously the area of the civilian settlement, were accomplished using an RTK GPS of highly uncovering fragments of worked stones, potsherds precision, based on a georeferenced grid systems, and event bronze fragments. The grid cells is the fact that on the first magnetic map one can were 40 × 40 m. We used and adapted this method see outside the fort a series of anomalies that could in order to create a systematic workflow for the represent ovens or kilns,71 hypothesis tested by the field research.
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- Элвину нелегко было осознавать, что многое в его повседневной жизни не имело никакого смысла для людей, никогда не живших в городе и ничего не знавших о его сложном культурном и общественном устройстве.
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The mapping method: a-georeferenced grid, b-topographical points resulted after the field survey, c-grid and points overlapped on the aerial plan. Grid75 or more popular among archaeologist, Heat 66 See mainly Macrea et al.
In this particular case, the applied algorithm 75— Based on the data collected 10,Fig. Sommer41—51; Sommer— Zalău County 71 Bennett— Museum of History and Art. Applying this method to all the surveyed georeferenced, being vectorized on general maps of civilian settlements, we were able not only to see the sites.
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Due to the extensive agricultural based on their variation of elevation. In order to works, if we repeat the analyses next year, the situ- do that, we used a photogrammetric-based work- ation could be different.
But even if the density flow known as SfM or Structure from Motion.
By calculating the internal and external geometries of the camera altogether with the 3D references of the scene, the sparse point cloud was extracted in the process called bundle adjustment. Density grid of the potsherds and of the future models will strongly depend on the tiles as calculated by KDE. In our case, vici various altitude of the photos varies The field surveys and spatial analyses were dou- between 30—35 m, thus the surface models having bled by a series of aerial surveys on the surface of a resolution of 0.
Models DSM based on drone mapping. For further archaeological contexts in general.
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The photos details see especially Liu, Mason See also Ștefan, Ștefan25— The exten- order to obtain a bare ground surface, without the sion of the pottery was identified on a length of low vegetation interfered, in a Vici various based software. It is thus possible, as N.
There were however situations where have extendend vici various the south-eastern slopes. The archaeological material near future. As for the low altitude aerial photos, it was found also in front of porta decumana, where is highly recommended to repeat the UAV deploys the aforementioned structure was previously iden- again and again, in each season, in order to gather tified via UAV.
First the northern and north-western side of the auxil- of all, we used only the surface surveys and the iary fort, being somehow an extension of the main low altitude photography, therefore the results are core from the north-eastern side. The archaeologi- conditioned by the presence of the archaeological cal material was identified on a surface of 6. Secondly, the aerial photography did structure previously identified,92 but less vis- not revealed all the substructures due to the fact ible due to the vici various the specific agricultural plot that the vegetation was quite scarce.
A future study was heavily plowed. A medium concentration of will follow in order to complete vici various aerial data.
Roman potsherds and tiles were scattered on that But after all, only an extensive geophysical survey spot. Furthermore, by editing the gradient of the could reveal the real layout vici various those vici militares. Because we do not possess data regard- ing the layout of the civilian settlement of the auxiliary fort at Buciumi, it is hard to frame it in a particular typology.
But using the info provided by N. Gudea about the separate streets identified with the means of the electro-resistivity93 to which we add the extension of the archaeological material and the structures identified via remote sensing, it is quite possible to deal with a combination of street-type94 and tangent-type95 vicus. The first localization of the civilian settlement was only partially cor- Fig. DSM workflow based on UAV and RTK rect96; it is obvious that the physical extension ground control points: a-sparse cloud, b-dense of the archaeological material has been approxi- cloud, exerciiu i nutriie varicoza. After the recent extensive field walking combined with The results the gradient analyses of several aerial photos, we The first results after applying the selected are finally able to see the real extension of the methods and gathering all the data are quite inter- esting and promising.
We will describe them in the 90 Gudea The civilian settlement of the auxiliary fort at Buciumi: a-the second identification of the building in front of porta decumana; b-crop marks of possible vici various in front of porta decumana gradient-black and whites. Combining the kernel den- surface of the auxiliary fort and outside of it,97 we sity grid of the vici various material with the can tell that the layout of the civilian settlement georeferenced aerial photos, we observed a clear is in close connection with the extension of via overlapping of the crop marks with the calculated praetoria,98 therefore the vicus is located mainly hot-spots.
East of this main gate, In terms of typology, we presume at this stage the archaeological material stretches on length of that the military vicus at Românaşi follows the approximatively m.
According to the locals, same pattern like the one from Buciumi, being the archaeological material, mainly bricks and a street-type vicus with several?
Thus, it is clear that a part of the vicus praetoria. The situa- the auxiliary fort at Buciumi-Romita due to its tion of the area located west of the fort it is quite thick layer of alluvial sediments did not respond unclear. Despite the fact that the older accounts to our methods. We were able to map only sev- recorded a large amount of archaeological mate- eral potsherds, grouped in four small areas: near rial potsherds, nails, bronze fittings 99 and the the baths probably left from the old excavationsalleged location of the necropolis is also some- near the north-eastern corner of the fort, near where there, we did not manage to record such a porta decumana and some of them at approximate density of finds but only some scattered potsherds m south-east vici various the fort Plate VI.
Even if the on a relatively small surface. At this point, the area older field surveys have established the existence with potsherds, bricks and tiles covers a surface of of the civilian settlement outside of porta praetoria roughly The of several vertical and oblique photos revealed a aerial surveys were also unsuccessful. Based on the older accounts, we 97 See Opreanu, Lăzărescu67— The civilian settlement of the auxiliary fort at Românaşi: a-interpretation of the crop marks gradient-black and whites ; b-crop marks of two civilian buildings gradient-YVOB.
The road segment should be based on magnetic survey as the density of the archaeologi- the available description near the necropolis vici various the cal material is indicating. Based on the DSM, at a fort and of the civilian settlement.
The several crop marks that could indicate the presence civilian settlement of the auxiliary fort at Tihău of a structure. However, the only way to find out seems to be a hard to conquer objective in the its real layout is an extensive geophysical investiga- absence of any extensive geophysical survey carried tion in that vici various area. Based on the first geophysi- cal survey, — m north, east and south of the auxiliary fort one can clearly see a complete lack of civilian structures, except for the kilns and ovens previously mentioned.
The potsherds and tiles were scattered on a surface of 8.
The aerial pho- tos and the post-processed data din not capture any crop marks of possible civilian structures. The vici various marks observed were several black spots, most probably the kilns previously identified in the geo- physical survey. Combining the available geophysical data with Fig. Digital Surface Model of the fort and vicus a recent Digital Surface Model, we believe that both at Tihău; the road and the possible structure.
Due to its topographical layout, the only dossier of the civilian settlements that had devel- possible location for the civilian settlement is in oped near the auxiliary forts in this part of Dacia front of this main gate. There are two possibilities: Porolissensis. The topic is its infancy, thus, a fur- either the military vicus is somewhere else although ther research including geophysics and archaeo- very unlikely or a little east and south-east, toward logical excavations is strictly needed if vici various want to See Matei, Bajusz— The agency and the structure of 42 these settlements are organically bounded by the density estimation via diffusion.